- Starch granules indicating the consumption of starchy plants.
- Evidence of oil shale or bitumen. Bitumen was used by Neanderthals at other sites as an adhesive for hafting stone points onto wooden spears or handles. That evidence came from the stone points themselves, so it is possible that bitumen was used more widely as an adhesive or preservative in contexts that do not persist as long in the archaeological record.
- Alkyl phenols and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons consistent with exposure to wood smoke or smoked food.
- Chemical residues consistent with consumption of yarrow and chamomile, including bitter-tasting and appetite-suppressing compounds.
- A very low level of proteins and absence of lipid components suggested that the diet of these individuals was protein-poor during the time they were forming calculus.
What the dental plaque did not show was much evidence of meat protein. So far as this study shows, Neanderthals ate more cooked plants than meat. I suspect that there are some issues with the survival of animal proteins over tens of thousands of years, but anyway that is what the study shows. So if you really want to eat like a paleolithic person, you should cut back on meat and eat more roasted roots.