involved six individuals from the Neolithic Rössen Culture of Germanay, ca. 4500 BCE; these six people fell into four different mtDMA lineages, H5, HV0, U5, and K. This was already a mixed population.
The second study was of eight individuals from a Merovingian graveyard in southwestern France, 7th to 8th century CE. These eight individuals came from six different mtDNA lineages representing five of the nine haplogroups known in old Europe: J, H, K, X2 and W. This is a remarkable degree of mixing; by early medieval times, eight people from one French graveyard expressed a majority of Europe's genetic diversity. This is powerful evidence for the movement and mixing of peoples on a large scale, exactly what the traditional picture of European history and prehistory predicts. Evolution in place of people who had been there since the Neolithic, as imagined by some 20th-century archaeologists, absolutely could not under any scenario yield diversity like this.